Cancer Types

Cancer Types
Adrenocortical Carcinoma

Aggressive cancer originating in the adrenal gland.

Anal Cancer

Uncommon cancer in the anal canal, a short tube at the end of the rectum.

Bile Duct Cancer

Cancer in the tubes that carry digestive fluid through the liver.

Bladder Cancer

Cancer in the tissue that lines the inner surface of the bladder.

Bone Cancer

A cancer can begin in any bone, but most commonly affects the pelvis or the long bones in the arms and legs. Common types of bone cancer include:

  • Ewing Sarcoma
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma
Brain Tumors

Cancerous or noncancerous mass or growth of abnormal cells in the brain.

Breast Cancer

Cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts.

Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma

Rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma in which cancer cells from lymph tissue form in the brain and/or spinal cord.

Cervical

Cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.

Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

A group of slow-growing blood cancers in which the bone marrow makes too many abnormal red blood cells.

Colorectal Cancer

Cancer of the colon or rectum, which is located at the digestive tract’s lower end. Also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer (any cancer that affects the colon and the rectum).

Esophageal Cancer

Cancer of the esophagus, the tube that runs from the throat to the stomach.

Eye Cancer

Melanoma of the eye (Intraocular Melanoma) is rare, developing from pigment-making cells (melanocytes).

Fallopian Tube Cancer

Cancer that develops in the fallopian tubes that connect the ovaries and the uterus.

Gallbladder Cancer

Difficult to diagnose because there are no symptoms in its early stages, this cancer develops in the gallbladder, a small organ below the liver.

Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor

Cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

Germ Cell Tumors

Growths that form from reproductive cells; testicular cancer or ovarian cancer.

  • Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Testicular Cancer

Also: Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD)rare tumors that form from tissues surrounding a fertilized egg.

Head and Neck Cancer (Throat Cancer)

Usually begin in the squamous cells that line surfaces inside the head and neck (inside the mouth, nose, and throat). The most common types of head and neck cancers:

  • Nasopharyngeal Cancer
  • Oropharyngeal Cancer
  • Hypopharyngeal Cancer
Hodgkin Lymphoma

Cancer of the lymphatic system, the vessels through which lymph drains from the tissues into the blood. This is part of the immune system.

Intraocular Melanoma

Also called ocular melanoma, this is a rare cancer of melanocytes (cells that produce the melanin) in the eye.

Kidney Cancer (Renal Cancer)

Cells in the kidney become malignant and grow out of control. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type.

Leukemia

Cancer of the body’s blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system. There are many forms of leukemia:

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
  • Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic (CML)
  • Myeloid Leukemia, Acute (AML)
  • Hairy Cell Leukemia
Liver Cancer

Cancer is the growth and spread of unhealthy cells in the liver. The most common types of cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma).

Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell and Small Cell)

Cancer that begins in the lungs (most often in people who smoke tobacco). There are four types of lung cancer:

  • Adenocarcinoma (NSCLC)
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (NSCLC)
  • Large cell carcinoma (NSCLC)
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer

 

Lymphoma

Cancer of the lymphatic system, which is part of the body’s germ-fighting network. Lymphomas are categorized as Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphomas (the most common lymphoma).

Melanoma

Skin cancer that arises when pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) mutate and become cancerous.

Mesothelioma

A rare and aggressive cancer caused by asbestos. Mesothelioma forms on the protective tissues covering the lungs, abdomen, and heart.

 

Metastatic Cancer

Cells break away from where they first formed (primary cancer), travel through the blood or lymph system, and form new tumors (metastatic tumors) in other parts of the body.

Multiple Myeloma (Plasma Cell Neoplasms)

A blood cancer related to lymphoma and leukemia, multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells (white blood cells responsible for producing antibodies).

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Cancer that originates in your lymphatic system, and beings in white blood cells called lymphocytes.

Ovarian Cancer

This cancer, that begins in the ovaries – if undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen – is difficult to treat and frequently fatal.

Pancreatic Cancer

Cancer that begins in the pancreas, and organ behind the lower part of the stomach.

 

Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

A tumor that develops in the pancreas from an islet cell, which make and release hormones – such as insulin and glucagon – into the bloodstream.

Paraganglioma

Rare tumors that make too much adrenaline. Cells from a cancerous paraganglioma can spread (metastasize) to lymph nodes, bone, liver, lungs or other places in the body.

Parathyroid Cancer

A rare malignancy in which cancer cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland.

Penile Cancer

A relatively rare form of cancer that affects the skin and tissues of the penis.

Pheochromocytoma

A rare – usually benign – tumor that develops in an adrenal gland. (It may affect one of the two adrenal glands but can affect both glands.)

Pituitary Tumor

Some pituitary tumors can cause your pituitary gland to produce lower levels of hormones that regulate important body functions. Most pituitary tumors are benign.

Primary Peritoneal Cancer

A close relative of epithelial ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal cancer is relatively rare and starts in the peritoneum layer of tissue that lines the inside of the abdomen.

Prostate Cancer

Occurs in the prostate, the gland in men that produces the seminal fluid that transports sperm.

Sarcoma

Sarcomas grow in connective tissue — cells that connect or support other kinds of tissue in the body. Cancerous tumors of this connective tissues are called sarcomas.

Skin Cancer

Abnormal skin cells growth most often developed on skin exposed to the sun. There are several types of skin cancer:

  • Basal and Squamous Cell
  • Melanoma
  • Merkel cell (carcinoma)
  • Cutaneous lymphoma
  • Kaposi Sarcoma

 

Small Intestine Cancer (Bowel Cancer)

A rare cancer in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the small intestine. There are five types of small intestine cancer:

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Carcinoid tumors
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
  • Lymphoma
  • Sarcoma

Adenocarcinoma usually starts in mucus glands that line the lower part of the esophagus.

Carcinoid tumors are rare. These slow-growing cancers generally start in the lungs or the digestive tract.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are most commonly in the stomach or small intestine.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Cancer that starts in soft tissues like muscle, tendons, fat, lymph vessels, blood vessels, and nerves.

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

Cancer which develops from the lining of the stomach.

Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

Rare tumors that form in cells on the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.

Thyroid Cancer

Cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck. There are four types of thyroid cancer:

  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer
  • Follicular thyroid cancer
  • Medullary thyroid cancer
  • Papillary thyroid cancer
Urethral Cancer

Cancer in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the urethra, the duct by which urine is carried out of the body from the bladder. It is part of the renal system.

Uterine Cancer (Endometrial Cancer)

Cancer of the uterus, an organ located in the female pelvis between the bladder and rectum.

Uterine Sarcoma

Cancer cells that form in the muscles of the uterus or other tissues that support the uterus.

Vaginal Cancer

Rare type of cancer in which malignant cells form in the vagina. There are four types of vaginal cancer:

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Clear cell adenocarcinoma
  • Melanoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
Vulvar Cancer

Rare type of cancer where abnormal cells forms on the outer part of the female genitals. There are several types of vulvar cancer:

  • Bartholin gland cancer
  • Invasive squamous cell cancer of the vulva
  • Paget disease
  • Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia
  • Vulvar melanoma